柑橘类疾病黄蜂

Galls or stem swellings on citrus trees need to be removed by pruning by the end of August, as very tiny black wasps emerge from the galls in September and October ready to lay a new batch of eggs in citrus stems. Because these wasps are poor fliers, they tend to reproduce on the same tree unless blown by wind to a new host.
Unlike many other wasps that assist pollination or are pest predators, the citrus gall wasp is a true pest. Eggs are laid in young stems of citrus trees, particularly lemon and grapefruit varieties, and the native finger lime. The larvae remain within the stem, stimulating the growth of cells, and causing a gall or swelling to form on the infested stem by early summer. Trees that are repeatedly attacked will become weaker and produce less fruit.
Originally, only coastal gardens of New South Wales and Queensland were affected, however, this wasp is spreading to other areas of Australia.
Do not add galls to the compost heap. Burn them, or dispose of them in a sealed plastic bag. It is very likely that the gall in the photo missed last year’s pruning because it is unusual for galls to reach that size in one season. As you can see, the tree in the photo is also affected by scale, and it is more common for citrus gall wasp to attack stressed trees. After pruning, water the tree thoroughly, and feed it with a complete organic fertiliser and as much compost as you can spare. A drink of seaweed extract tea will help it to resist further pest and disease attack.

叶子瓢虫

这个丑陋的小生物是叶子瓢虫的幼虫。强调植物长期热,干燥的条件吸引了这些害虫。当他们到达蛹阶段时,幼虫变得几乎是黑色的。叶子瓢虫的成年人和幼虫尤其喜欢Solanum家族(番茄,马铃薯,茄子)和甜瓜或壁球家庭,在那里他们对叶子做了很多伤害。

The adult leaf-eating ladybird has 26 or 28 spots in rows across its wing covers. They are slow moving and drop to the ground when disturbed. In summer, if you see the adults on leaves in your garden, be sure to look under the leaves for their eggs. Remove small leaves containing eggs and, on large leaves, use a knife to scrape the eggs into a container. As I dislike spraying my garden, I just squash the adults and larva with a gloved hand.
Unfortunately, the damage done by these ladybirds and their offspring have resulted in many gardeners spraying other species of ladybirds that are voracious pest predators. Both adults and larvae consume a considerable quantity of pests such as aphids, scale and mites, and one type of ladybird feeds on fungus. Peter Chew and his family have an excellent website,布里斯班昆虫和蜘蛛,园丁可以轻松识别哪些生物对他们的花园有益,并且包括害虫,包括一个瓢虫场指南
下面的照片显示了28次斑点瓢虫的幼虫和蛹阶段。

飞在水果碗周围

Drosophila-wikipediaColumn 8 in today’s Sydney Morning Herald stated that Sydneysiders’ kitchens have been infested by fruit flies, stating that, “They emerge from fruit and hang around all summer”. The flies referred to are not fruit flies, they are the very small vinegar or ferment flies (Drosophila)。Genuine fruit flies are kept out by fly screens. Vinegar flies emerge from fruit, tomatoes, etc. as grubs (larvae) and require pupation outside the fruit in order to complete their life cycle as a fly. If these tiny pests are a persistent problem, there must be a breeding ground nearby or the kitchen needs more regular cleaning.
醋苍蝇被发酵有机材料和排水中的酵母的气味被吸引。消除问题:

  • 在温暖,潮湿的天气下,不要让水果保持在室温下
  • Cover compost and garbage containers
  • 定期冲洗垃圾容器
  • Rinse beer and wine containers before recycling
  • and treat drains with an enzyme product to break down thick scum where they can feed and reproduce.

Genuine fruit flies,地中海果蝇(Ceratitis capitata)和昆士兰果蝇(Dacus Tryoni.) cause a lot of destruction in gardens. They require pupation in soil after the maggots emerge from fruit. To reduce the problem of genuine fruit flies, collect all fallen fruit, put it in a sealed black garbage bag and leave the bag in the sun for three or four days to cook the larvae (and encourage your neighbours to do the same). Never put infected fruit in the compost container.

黄叶 - 盆栽柑橘

缺铁

读者想知道在她盆栽的矮人柠檬树中引起新叶子的造成泛黄。从她通过电子邮件发送的照片,它看起来像这棵树有缺铁,因为黄生在幼叶中呈现。这可能是由许多条件引起的:


a)灌封混合物(或土壤),其从过量的生物炭或含有含有许多家禽粪便的混合物或肥料中的含量
b)冷和湿土壤或生长混合
c) if there is a build up of fertiliser salts from synthetic fertilisers, or
d) where there is an excess of potassium from synthetic fertilisers or over-use of seaweed liquid fertiliser.

第一件事是检查你的锅是否有充足的排水。大锅不应该直接坐在硬表面上。虽然较小的盆通常在罐底部的侧面周围有充足的排水孔,但大锅通常只有一个大孔在底座中只有一个大孔,这很容易被阻挡,导致允许释放和/或肥料盐的浓度,如果合成肥料被用过。大罐子应具有放置在锅中的瓷砖块,以允许罐的底部和阳台或阳台之间的小空间。如果您注意到土壤线(肥料盐)顶部的外壳,一旦排水,液体齐全,用清水冲洗植物。

The next step is to check the pH of the mix with a test kit. A suitable pH is important to all parts of your garden as the pH in soil or mix controls the availability of nutrients. Test kits are very economical to use and readily available from larger nurseries. If you find that the pH is above 7.2, you could repot the tree using an organic-registered potting mix as organic matter is an important source of iron. However, to do so may result in the loss of this crop of fruit.
The addition of flowers of sulphur (elemental sulphur) is the usual way to reduce pH in soils, but it is easy to overdo this in potted plants. You can apply iron chelates (the form of iron in organic compost) to the mix in the pot at the recommended rate. Citrus trees do not absorb iron chelates well through foliar spraying. Or, you can fertilise the tree with a weak solution of Multicrop’s Ecofish. This is an organic-registered liquid fertiliser that contains soluble iron and has a low pH, qhich will help to reduce the pH in the pot. Ecofish contains iron, manganese, sulphur and zinc (trace elements needed by citrus). Manganese deficiency is also caused by high pH or poorly-drained soil.

漂浮甲虫

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe warm, dry weather has enouraged this small native beetle (Monolepta australis)进入花园。随着他们的共同名称表明,这些黄色甲虫在肩膀上有一个鲜红条纹,翅膀上的红斑。他们到达一个大型群,并选择一个或两个强调的植物以饲料。我们注意到他们经常选择用白花的植物。虽然这些甲虫长6毫米,但他们的纯粹数字使它们能够在很短的时间内骨架小到中等灌木,然后继续前进到另一个财产。单细胞难以控制,因为将杀死甲虫的喷雾也会同时杀死有益的昆虫访问植物。
如果攻击的植物不是太大,你可以通过使用棍子将它们敲入肥皂水容器中来摆脱这些甲虫。由于他们对彩色白色的喜爱,许多甲虫将淹没在一个充满水的白色容器中,留在目标灌木附近。(Don’t add soap to this water or it will kill bees that stop by for a drink.) The only way to protect your garden from attack by these beetles is to keep shrubs watered during dry spells, and keep the garden surface mulched to prevent moisture loss through evaporation.

Lime Sulphur

Yellrose1.建议农业石灰或元素硫磺将土壤pH调制到适合特定植物健康生长的范围。读者最近问我是否适合在她的有机庭院中使用玫瑰花的“石灰硫”。
‘Lime Sulphur’ or ‘Lime Sulfur’ is a fungicide/pesticide formed from reacting calcium hydroxide (made from adding water to quicklime) with sulphur. It is usually applied when roses are dormant as it can burn foliage.
水合石灰是非常有反应性的,不应在植物生长的情况下使用。石灰硫溶液非常碱性(pH1.1.5-11.5)和腐蚀性。手套,护目镜,面部面罩和防护服必须佩戴,因为农药对眼睛,皮肤和呼吸道的烦恼非常刺激。看看Material Safety Data Sheet对于这个产品。

当植物受到足够的元素(包括硫磺)时受疾病的影响,他们需要健康免疫系统,或者不合适的土壤pH(因为pH控制不同营养物的可用性)或土壤要么过于干燥,根部吸收营养素,或被涝,非常酸性。
Although some sources state that Lime Sulphur fulfils requirements of organic gardening groups, the ‘Australian Certified Organic Standard 2010'将石灰硫作为限制性产品,并指出它对有益昆虫产生潜在影响。
我的建议是在您的表身上保持适量的堆肥,堆肥将所有营养素(包括硫)靠近植物根;调节灌溉和土壤pH,并提供合适的完全有机肥。与此同时,如果您的植物有严重的真菌问题,我建议您使用有机作物保护剂的有机注册的“生态杀菌剂”。它不会损害你的植物或你的土壤,它是善良的有益昆虫。

Cabbage butterfly update

cwbdecoy.白菜白蝴蝶今年与我的西兰花度过了美好的时光。有几个条件使芸苔非常有吸引力,这些害虫和棕色白菜蛾。看到白菜白蝴蝶
我的问题是,我无意中向花园的那个区域添加了一些非常碱性的堆肥,(见最近的帖子堆肥博士) and it is taking a while for the soil to get back to a neutral pH.

后一个星期左右去除鸡蛋,squashing tiny caterpillars, or feeding larger ones to the chooks, I remembered a tip someone gave me long ago to deter these pests but have not needed to use before. The tip was to slip the plastic clips that seal loaves of sliced bread onto the edge of some of the Brassica leaves. White seals to deter the C W butterfly and beige ones for cabbage moth. The theory being that the adult butterflies and moths will “think” that eggs are already being laid on these plants and they look for another food source for their larvae.
我的西兰花植物已经看起来更健康,我还没有在叶子下找到更多的鸡蛋,但我不知道密封件是否有效,或者害虫不再存在于我们的地区。还有其他人试过这个提示吗?

园艺聊天

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

我将在4月6日星期六在Wingham Farme威廉希尔真人娱乐场rs Market上午10点举行谈论有机园艺。

If you are in the area, come along and find out how easy it is for you to make your entire garden healthier and more naturally resistant to pests and diseases.

Wingham Farmers Market是新鲜当地产品的伟大来源。

每月在上午8点到上午8点到格洛斯特路的Wingham Showground,市场举行了市场。

Root knot nematodes

损坏纹理贴片的线虫,是微小的蠕虫的生物,也称为eelworms。雌性线虫穿透植物根部导致肿块在根上形成肿块,这会影响根部的携带能力。(这些不与在豆类根源上形成的氮固定块混淆,看Fixing nitrogen)。在有机质中较低的土壤中更容易发生根结线虫,特别是在尚未实施适当的作物旋转的情况下。

Treatment
每个雌性线虫都可以置于2000粒卵,并且数字可以迅速乘以。给受影响植物饲料海藻提取茶。海藻含有大量的钾,有助于加强细胞壁并改善植物对害虫的抗性并促进根生长。删除所有杂草。有些杂草是这些害虫的主持人,可以将病毒转移到植物中。
不得允许受影响的植物变得耐水。必须删除受严重的植物。确保土壤是潮湿的,使土壤紧贴着根部。将植物(带附着的土壤)放入垃圾袋中。密封袋子,留在炎热的太阳下几天,然后将它放在垃圾桶里。不要堆肥这些植物。收获作物后,继续预防方法(见下文)。

Prevention
在同一片土壤中生长番茄/马铃薯或瓜/黄瓜家族之间的任何成员之间留3年。在这次休息期间,培养一个绿色粪便,这是一个“生物熏蒸剂”。'生物熏蒸剂是绿色粪便,释放对线虫有毒的气体。它们生长为膝盖高度并切碎并通过顶部土壤混合,然后用覆盖物覆盖。Green Harvest在控制线虫的情况下,对BQ覆盖物(在较冷的月份播种)和豇豆(播种)。印度或棕色芥末(Brassica Juncea)和非转基因油菜籽(Brassica Napus)也是有效的生物熏蒸剂。忘记万寿菊,他们对北半球线虫更有效。在3年的休息期间,如果花园空间有限,可以在经过有限的床上生长芸苔或玉米。
When preparing beds, add a 5 cm layer of organic compost to the bed surface and cover it with organic mulch. Beneficial organisms in compost are pest nematode predators, and mulch keeps compost damp to allow microorganisms to work on restoring soil to health.

Powdery mildew on zucchini

读者已经询问夏南林植物和吃真菌瓢虫的白威廉希尔真人娱乐场粉病:
嗨。想知道你是否可以对此进行解决。
1.大多数真菌需要水分和有机材料。当我在叶子上水时,我的西葫芦似乎都得到了玉米夏天的支持。我读过他们喜欢干燥的天气。有任何一种意见是否有证据?
有人说,在这种霉变上喂养的瓢虫通过携带孢子来传播它,其他人认为他们是一个控制器,倒下真菌。其中中的任何一个都有什么证据?非常感谢,倒钩


Powdery mildew is likely to occur on stressed plants in humid weather when temperatures are between 11-28° C. and, once established will continue to affect the plants even if weather becomes dry. Avoid wetting leaves whenever possible Barb. However, because they like low-humidity weather, it doesn’t mean that they are drought tolerant. Zucchini and some other members of the cucurbit family (melons and squash) produce a lot of foliage and need plenty of water and fertiliser. An efficient way to water this group of plants without wetting the leaves is to put a large drink container (with the base and cap removed) neck downwards near the roots so that all the water goes directly to the root area where it is needed, (see photo). Keep topping up the container until it empties slowly.
黄色的瓢虫26和28 th斑点e only pests of the ladybird family. They eat the leaves of stressed plants of cucurbits. The beneficial fungus-eating ladybird and larvae can be clearly distinguished from the pest in the photos below. From the far left is the ‘Fungus-eating ladybird’, then the leaf-eating ’26 spot Ladybird’ that damages plants. Next is the larva of the ‘Fungus-eating Ladybird’, which also eats fungus and, last of all is the prickly larva of the ’26 spot Ladybird.

Rather than blame the fungus-eating ladybird for spreading the disease, gardeners should check that their plants have sufficient water and nutrients to avoid stress, and the soil pH is suitable for them to absorb what they need for healthy, disease-resistant growth. Also seePowdery Mildew治疗这种疾病。