Galls or stem swellings on citrus trees need to be removed by pruning by the end of August, as very tiny black wasps emerge from the galls in September and October ready to lay a new batch of eggs in citrus stems. Because these wasps are poor fliers, they tend to reproduce on the same tree unless blown by wind to a new host.
Unlike many other wasps that assist pollination or are pest predators, the citrus gall wasp is a true pest. Eggs are laid in young stems of citrus trees, particularly lemon and grapefruit varieties, and the native finger lime. The larvae remain within the stem, stimulating the growth of cells, and causing a gall or swelling to form on the infested stem by early summer. Trees that are repeatedly attacked will become weaker and produce less fruit.
Originally, only coastal gardens of New South Wales and Queensland were affected, however, this wasp is spreading to other areas of Australia.
Do not add galls to the compost heap. Burn them, or dispose of them in a sealed plastic bag. It is very likely that the gall in the photo missed last year’s pruning because it is unusual for galls to reach that size in one season. As you can see, the tree in the photo is also affected by scale, and it is more common for citrus gall wasp to attack stressed trees. After pruning, water the tree thoroughly, and feed it with a complete organic fertiliser and as much compost as you can spare. A drink of seaweed extract tea will help it to resist further pest and disease attack.
The adult leaf-eating ladybird has 26 or 28 spots in rows across its wing covers. They are slow moving and drop to the ground when disturbed. In summer, if you see the adults on leaves in your garden, be sure to look under the leaves for their eggs. Remove small leaves containing eggs and, on large leaves, use a knife to scrape the eggs into a container. As I dislike spraying my garden, I just squash the adults and larva with a gloved hand.
Unfortunately, the damage done by these ladybirds and their offspring have resulted in many gardeners spraying other species of ladybirds that are voracious pest predators. Both adults and larvae consume a considerable quantity of pests such as aphids, scale and mites, and one type of ladybird feeds on fungus. Peter Chew and his family have an excellent website,布里斯班昆虫和蜘蛛，园丁可以轻松识别哪些生物对他们的花园有益，并且包括害虫，包括一个瓢虫场指南。
Column 8 in today’s Sydney Morning Herald stated that Sydneysiders’ kitchens have been infested by fruit flies, stating that, “They emerge from fruit and hang around all summer”. The flies referred to are not fruit flies, they are the very small vinegar or ferment flies (Drosophila）。Genuine fruit flies are kept out by fly screens. Vinegar flies emerge from fruit, tomatoes, etc. as grubs (larvae) and require pupation outside the fruit in order to complete their life cycle as a fly. If these tiny pests are a persistent problem, there must be a breeding ground nearby or the kitchen needs more regular cleaning.
- Cover compost and garbage containers
- Rinse beer and wine containers before recycling
- and treat drains with an enzyme product to break down thick scum where they can feed and reproduce.
Genuine fruit flies，地中海果蝇（Ceratitis capitata）和昆士兰果蝇（Dacus Tryoni.) cause a lot of destruction in gardens. They require pupation in soil after the maggots emerge from fruit. To reduce the problem of genuine fruit flies, collect all fallen fruit, put it in a sealed black garbage bag and leave the bag in the sun for three or four days to cook the larvae (and encourage your neighbours to do the same). Never put infected fruit in the compost container.
c) if there is a build up of fertiliser salts from synthetic fertilisers, or
d) where there is an excess of potassium from synthetic fertilisers or over-use of seaweed liquid fertiliser.
The next step is to check the pH of the mix with a test kit. A suitable pH is important to all parts of your garden as the pH in soil or mix controls the availability of nutrients. Test kits are very economical to use and readily available from larger nurseries. If you find that the pH is above 7.2, you could repot the tree using an organic-registered potting mix as organic matter is an important source of iron. However, to do so may result in the loss of this crop of fruit.
The addition of flowers of sulphur (elemental sulphur) is the usual way to reduce pH in soils, but it is easy to overdo this in potted plants. You can apply iron chelates (the form of iron in organic compost) to the mix in the pot at the recommended rate. Citrus trees do not absorb iron chelates well through foliar spraying. Or, you can fertilise the tree with a weak solution of Multicrop’s Ecofish. This is an organic-registered liquid fertiliser that contains soluble iron and has a low pH, qhich will help to reduce the pH in the pot. Ecofish contains iron, manganese, sulphur and zinc (trace elements needed by citrus). Manganese deficiency is also caused by high pH or poorly-drained soil.
The warm, dry weather has enouraged this small native beetle (Monolepta australis）进入花园。随着他们的共同名称表明，这些黄色甲虫在肩膀上有一个鲜红条纹，翅膀上的红斑。他们到达一个大型群，并选择一个或两个强调的植物以饲料。我们注意到他们经常选择用白花的植物。虽然这些甲虫长6毫米，但他们的纯粹数字使它们能够在很短的时间内骨架小到中等灌木，然后继续前进到另一个财产。单细胞难以控制，因为将杀死甲虫的喷雾也会同时杀死有益的昆虫访问植物。
如果攻击的植物不是太大，你可以通过使用棍子将它们敲入肥皂水容器中来摆脱这些甲虫。由于他们对彩色白色的喜爱，许多甲虫将淹没在一个充满水的白色容器中，留在目标灌木附近。(Don’t add soap to this water or it will kill bees that stop by for a drink.) The only way to protect your garden from attack by these beetles is to keep shrubs watered during dry spells, and keep the garden surface mulched to prevent moisture loss through evaporation.
‘Lime Sulphur’ or ‘Lime Sulfur’ is a fungicide/pesticide formed from reacting calcium hydroxide (made from adding water to quicklime) with sulphur. It is usually applied when roses are dormant as it can burn foliage.
水合石灰是非常有反应性的，不应在植物生长的情况下使用。石灰硫溶液非常碱性（pH1.1.5-11.5）和腐蚀性。手套，护目镜，面部面罩和防护服必须佩戴，因为农药对眼睛，皮肤和呼吸道的烦恼非常刺激。看看Material Safety Data Sheet对于这个产品。
Although some sources state that Lime Sulphur fulfils requirements of organic gardening groups, the ‘Australian Certified Organic Standard 2010'将石灰硫作为限制性产品，并指出它对有益昆虫产生潜在影响。
我的问题是，我无意中向花园的那个区域添加了一些非常碱性的堆肥，（见最近的帖子堆肥博士) and it is taking a while for the soil to get back to a neutral pH.
后一个星期左右去除鸡蛋,squashing tiny caterpillars, or feeding larger ones to the chooks, I remembered a tip someone gave me long ago to deter these pests but have not needed to use before. The tip was to slip the plastic clips that seal loaves of sliced bread onto the edge of some of the Brassica leaves. White seals to deter the C W butterfly and beige ones for cabbage moth. The theory being that the adult butterflies and moths will “think” that eggs are already being laid on these plants and they look for another food source for their larvae.
在同一片土壤中生长番茄/马铃薯或瓜/黄瓜家族之间的任何成员之间留3年。在这次休息期间，培养一个绿色粪便，这是一个“生物熏蒸剂”。'生物熏蒸剂是绿色粪便，释放对线虫有毒的气体。它们生长为膝盖高度并切碎并通过顶部土壤混合，然后用覆盖物覆盖。Green Harvest在控制线虫的情况下，对BQ覆盖物（在较冷的月份播种）和豇豆（播种）。印度或棕色芥末（Brassica Juncea）和非转基因油菜籽（Brassica Napus）也是有效的生物熏蒸剂。忘记万寿菊，他们对北半球线虫更有效。在3年的休息期间，如果花园空间有限，可以在经过有限的床上生长芸苔或玉米。
When preparing beds, add a 5 cm layer of organic compost to the bed surface and cover it with organic mulch. Beneficial organisms in compost are pest nematode predators, and mulch keeps compost damp to allow microorganisms to work on restoring soil to health.
Powdery mildew is likely to occur on stressed plants in humid weather when temperatures are between 11-28° C. and, once established will continue to affect the plants even if weather becomes dry. Avoid wetting leaves whenever possible Barb. However, because they like low-humidity weather, it doesn’t mean that they are drought tolerant. Zucchini and some other members of the cucurbit family (melons and squash) produce a lot of foliage and need plenty of water and fertiliser. An efficient way to water this group of plants without wetting the leaves is to put a large drink container (with the base and cap removed) neck downwards near the roots so that all the water goes directly to the root area where it is needed, (see photo). Keep topping up the container until it empties slowly.
黄色的瓢虫26和28 th斑点e only pests of the ladybird family. They eat the leaves of stressed plants of cucurbits. The beneficial fungus-eating ladybird and larvae can be clearly distinguished from the pest in the photos below. From the far left is the ‘Fungus-eating ladybird’, then the leaf-eating ’26 spot Ladybird’ that damages plants. Next is the larva of the ‘Fungus-eating Ladybird’, which also eats fungus and, last of all is the prickly larva of the ’26 spot Ladybird.
Rather than blame the fungus-eating ladybird for spreading the disease, gardeners should check that their plants have sufficient water and nutrients to avoid stress, and the soil pH is suitable for them to absorb what they need for healthy, disease-resistant growth. Also seePowdery Mildew治疗这种疾病。